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A study of Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Retinopathy



IntroductionDiabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and is the leading cause of preventable legal blindness in persons aged 25-74 years. The early inflammatory response in retina has been proposed to be the result of persistent  hyperglycemia as well as of dyslipidemia. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the various components of serum lipids with Non Proliferative and Proliferative forms of Diabetic Retinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a cross sectional study which included 55 patients attending the Department of Ophthalmology in  Government Medical College Hospital, Thanjavur for evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy(DR). Serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TGL), and High density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using standard enzyme kits in auto analyser. Low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) was         calculated by Friedewalds formula.RESULTS 55 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the  analysis. Patients were divided into two groups Group 1 patient with Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR), Group 2 patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR). Out of 55 patients with Diabetic Retinopathy included in the study, 23 NPDR and 32 had PDR. The levels of TC, TGL, LDL and VLDL significantly correlate with both Non Proliferative and    Proliferative retinopathy and correlation was significant at P value 0.05 . But the atherogenic index (log TGLHDL) shows strong correlation with Proliferative retinopathy than with Non proliferative retinopathy (P 0.001)DISCUSSIONDiabetes  mellitus is the leading cause of blindness between the ages of 20 and 74. This cross sectional study has shown positive  correlation between the severity of retinopathy, conventional plasma lipid profiles and atherogenic index. More severe  retinopathy was found to be associated with higher total  triglycerides levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher LDL cholesterol levels CONCLUSION The findings of this study has added to the growing evidence that dyslipidemia is a risk factor for the development of both Non Proliferative and Proliferative Retinopathy in Diabetic patients


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