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Gender Differences in the Cardiovascular Response to Isometric Exercises of Upper Limbs in MBBS Students



Aim and Objectives- To compare the gender               differences in cardiovascular response to isometric exercises of upper limbs in MBBS students.Materials and methods- This study was conducted in our Department. A total of 100 male and 100 female MBBS students in the age group of 17 to 22 years with a body mass index of 18.5 - 25 who have not undergone any endurance training were included in this study.Instruments used- Hand Grip Dynamometer (0- 60 kilogram by INCO           AMBALA, India), Mercury Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, ECG machine, Stop watch, etc. Methodology- Basal                   anthropometric parameters were recorded. Basal cardiovascular parameters were recorded in supine position. Heart rate           measurements were obtained using Lead II of ECG. Blood  pressure was recorded using mercury sphygmomanometer in the non- dominant arm. Using hand grip dynamometer, Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) in the dominant arm was noted for

each individual. Following 10 minutes of rest, each subject was then asked to make a sustained grasp on the dynamometer at 30 percent of the subject's MVC for a period of 3 minutes in supine position. Subject was asked to maintain a normal     breathing rhythm. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded immediately at the end of 3 minutes. Data obtained were          compared between the male and female subjects.   Results- There was no significant difference between the male and female participants in the physical characteristics and  baseline cardiovascular parameters. The post exercise heart rate, systolic BP and Rate Pressure Product showed a   significant rise ('p' value less than 0.05) in males than in female participants whereas diastolic BP and Mean Arterial Pressure did not show any significant difference between them ('p' value more than 0.05). Males have a better pressor response than females due to differences in sympathetic- parasympathetic or adrenal interactions at cardiac level. Conclusion- From this study it was found that isometric exercises of upper limbs  produced a significant increase in the cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy individuals. The cardiovascular stress during isometric exercise was more in males than females.


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